I love teaching Orwell’s Animal Farm to my high-school freshmen. It is an incredible allegory that illustrates Karl Marx’s well-meaning Communism, how it prompted the people to overthrow the autocracy of Czar Nicholas II, and ultimately how Joseph Stalin used those very principles against the people who thought they were fighting for their equality. The novel works well in either a history class or a literature class, which makes teaching the novel multifaceted.
Every year, I get rebellious while teaching Animal Farm; I can’t help it. I see the similarities between the corruption of power and our present educational system, and I feel the intense desire to shout “Rebellion!” from the roof tops. The propaganda the government feeds our citizens is so widely accepted that a small voice like mine will barely make a dent in the system. Yet, it is my voice that will continue to cry out for change; it is my voice that begs parents to fight for their children’s right to a proper education, not a test driven one; and it is my voice that teaches students to never blindly follow their leadership–as Boxer, the dumb cart-horse, so aptly illustrates. Boxer destroys freedom and equality more through his maxims, “Napoleon is always right” and “I will work harder” than Napoleon does.
I have three goals when teaching the novel:
1) Help students see how they participate in sabotaging their own freedom and equality in their everyday lives, as well as in government issues;
2) Teach them how to write a powerful analytical argument on the abuse of power;
3) Hold up a mirror for them so they can see who they are as opposed to who they want to be.
How do I accomplish this?
1) We have a number of shared inquiry sessions where I ask them questions about the novel and their lives. Why didn’t anyone stand up to Napoleon, the tyrannical pig? How did Napoleon gain power so quickly? Have you ever defended your rights at home? School? Work? With friends? Which situations are harder than others, and why?
2) I have a writing packet that walks them through writing an analysis on the prompt: “Pick one leader or one follower and analyze how that character destroys freedom and equality on the farm.” Here is one of my favorite conclusions from a 14-year-old student: “Benjamin [the donkey] was the ultimate architect for the obliteration of freedom and equality on Animal Farm, even though he could have become a champion and shield for freedom and equality. Benjamin’s role in Animal Farm is essential to understanding that it is the followers, not the leaders, who hold the key to maintaining freedom and equality in any civilization.” This prompt, for the students who take this novel and essay seriously, can change and/or empower our students to make a positive impact in our world.
3) The final goal is the best, and sometimes the scariest, lesson I teach all year. Ironically, this great lesson has nothing to do with me, and everything to do with the students. It is also a lesson that I may be ordered to stop facilitating in my classroom because the results are solely empirical and cannot be quantified on a data chart.
I conduct a social experiment by telling the students they have rebelled against my authority in the classroom (I can’t take credit for this idea; it’s in the teaching notes for the novel). I give them a list of five things they have to accomplish before they can start functioning as a literature class:
- develop a motto or rallying song
- come up with a new name for the class
- write commandments (at least four) for this new classroom
- create a plan to maintain the purpose of this group as that of a literature class
- Begin functioning as one.
I then walk to the back of the room, sit at my desk, take notes, and refuse to acknowledge them when they ask me questions.
With every experiment, a few things always happen: someone (or a group) becomes a leader and the class attempts to accomplish the goals under the direction of this leader. What ensues after that depends on the students’ personalities. It is an eye-opening experience for me, and a day that stays with my students forever.
When I first started this social experiment, I thought the goal was for the students to start working as a group, and, at the end of the hour, to have begun functioning as a literature classroom. I was wrong. The goal is to show students who they are; the goal is to test the theory that power corrupts. More importantly, the experiment always reveals the natural leaders and what kind of leaders they will be.
Surprisingly, it’s not always the smartest students who take over leadership, but it’s a bonus if they are intelligent. Usually, it is the student who has natural charisma because students will follow someone they think is likable. If the popular student doesn’t stand up and take over right away, someone invariably will nominate him or her to the position. Whether that student remains in power or not depends on whether he or she is a good leader and whether or not there are other leaders in the classroom. Sadly, the girls only remain in power if they are working in conjunction with a male student. Even girls are horrible to any girl who dares to stand in leadership above them.
My goal is to be an observer and report what I see, and then afterwards, ask questions about motivation and behaviors. Students decide what happens in the classroom. If someone needs to go to the bathroom, he or she can decide to go; I won’t give or deny permission to anyone (I always like when a student just leaves. It shows courage.). Students can get involved or listen to their music if they want. They can start another rebellion against the new leadership or follow the new leader completely. It is always their choice.
Throughout the years I’ve had every possible scenario, yet every year students will surprise me with a new twist. There are students I would vote for if they ran for political office; there are students I would protest against if they ever tried. But mostly, there are students who are forever changed by looking into the Animal Farm Mirror.
Here are a few of my most interesting outcomes:
One year, I had a student, Tim, who was bright but was in my regular English class (opposed to Honors English). He read the whole novel over the weekend instead of just the first two chapters I assigned. When I wrote the instructions on the board, he knew what I was doing instantly. To his amazement, the students told Tim to take over leadership. Instead of speaking to the class, he asked another student to come up with him. Tim never spoke to the class once. He spoke to this other boy, who then spoke to the class. Everyone accepted this behavior. It was at this point that my heart starting racing, but not as much as it did by the end of the hour. Tim started creating rules, through his chief propagandist, that everyone followed blindly. He started with simple, crowd pleasing rules, like no homework ever; he then moved to all adults suck and must be avoided at all cost. Some students looked back at me and looked like they were going to physically remove me from the classroom. Tim’s mouthpiece told them I wasn’t really there, so I didn’t count. The class looked up at him with adoration. By the end he had people wearing red at the back of the class facing the wall because he hates the color red, and people wearing black sitting up front near him. There were no objections; there were no abstainers. They all blindly followed him. Tim caught my eye at one point and we just looked at each other with shock tinged with fear. He couldn’t believe they were actually doing everything he told them to do. When I stood up to report back, I begged Tim not to go into politics unless he promised me he would use his powers for good, not evil. He laughed and promised he wouldn’t. The class’s only explanation for their behavior was “Tim is cool.” And “We just wanted him to like us.”
Another situation was with my Honors English class. After I walked to the back of the room, two students stood up and tried to lead the group. The class demanded that an election take place first. There were at least 15 students on the ballot. After much debate, an election gave the position to the top two students. No one was happy. Before they could accomplish any of the tasks, another rebellion occurred. Two new students took over. Within ten minutes, another rebellion occurred. This happened for the entire hour of the experiment. At first I was frustrated. I was ready to tell them they failed the experiment; instead, I asked them what they thought about it. They were the ones who revealed that since they were all leaders, they could not fathom someone else in leadership over them. They then realized that they had to figure out how to get things done without one leader in charge. They thought if the experiment continued, they could have assigned positions to all the leaders according to their strengths. I have always regretted not continuing the experiment with that class. I would have liked to see what they would have done.
Sometimes there will be a student who starts off strong, but then gets greedy with his power. He will tell people to sit down and shut up. If someone dares to challenge his authority, he will get a security team to somehow silence the protestor. I am always amazed that the rest of the students tolerate that behavior. When I question them afterwards, they say negative things about the protestor instead of admonishing the leader for his corrupt use of power.
Every once and a while, I will have a student who stands up and leads, not as a dictator, but as a leader of the people. He will accept every suggestion and value everyone’s input, even if some of the suggestions are ridiculous. I’ve had only a few students who have actually led that way over the years, but I always hope that those few students find their way into politics.
This year I had two boys come talk to me after the experiment was over. They were “butt-hurt” as their friends jokingly told me. They didn’t like how they were feeling about the process or how they were perceived by their peers. The boys were in two separate classes and experienced the process from different ends of the spectrum. Both of them are wonderful students, and I truly enjoy having them in class.
In Class 1, this boy tried to be a leader, but his peers voted him out; to make matters worse, his good friend talked to him sternly about his negative behavior. Granted, his feelings were hurt from being voted out, but then he took out his phone, talked loudly to other students while the leader was listening to suggestions, and refused to vote on rules. Sadly, it was this immaturity that prompted his peers to vote him out of leadership in the first place. He asked me to help him understand what happened. Why did his friends not like him in this scenario? I told him the truth. He is a sweet boy whom everyone loves, but he behaved immaturely in front of the group. His ideas were mature, but his behavior was still childish. He lost their trust, and then they refused to listen to him. I encouraged him not to let it discourage him though. I told him that he was walking that line between childhood and manhood, exactly where he should be right now, but that I was positive his good heart and moral character would win out in the end.
In Class 2, the other boy stepped into leadership and had the support of the group until he started yelling at them. A few students started talking rebellion against him, but nothing developed. To top it off, he told another student that no one cared what this student thought and to sit down and shut up. When I reported back to the class, I asked why no one told the leader that was not okay. They all thought the leadership was right and the protestor was just being a jerk. Even though this boy was supported by his peers, he got a good look at himself and didn’t like what he saw. He sat before me deflated. He had always thought he was a great guy and didn’t understand what happened to him. I told him I knew he felt bad about his behavior, but that he was given a gift: He saw what power can do to him. He had the opportunity to decide if he wanted to be shaped by power, or if he wanted to use his natural leadership for good.
I reassured both boys that I thought they were wonderful people and that I believed in them. If they looked at the experiment as a rare opportunity to see their future paths and to decide if that’s who they wanted to be or not, they could start making changes before their personalities go too far in the wrong direction. Now is the time for them to decide what kind of men they wanted to be.
They smiled and thanked me for helping them feel better. I know that even though their egos were slightly bruised, they will take their leadership positions more seriously from now on.
My former students like to talk to me about Animal Farm when they have grown up and see how applicable the novel is to their lives. They remember the experiment, and who they were during the rebellion. I hope that wherever life takes them, they remember that as leaders and/or followers, they have control over their freedom and equality and to never blindly follow anyone.
29 thoughts on “Animal Farm Lessons”
Hi Pauline, your Animal Farm Lessons post was stuck at the back of my head ever since I first read it. Recently, my four year old son’s aggressive behavior has caused concerns (and worries and heartbreaks) in me, and I thought of your Animal Farm Lessons again. It has given me a new focus – “Can we teach children to become empathetic leaders?” I wrote a blog post about it here: http://100village.tumblr.com/post/92063870995/can-we-teach-children-to-become-empathetic-leaders
I’m starting to do more research into this… may I ask you for an interview over Skype or something?
Hi Nicholas. I’m excited to read your post and would love to do an interview with you. Please feel free to email me at email@example.com
This sounds very cool! How long did your social experiment last? 1 class period? 2?
I only let it go on for one class period, which was a 90 minute block. Depending on how the class was going, I would stop it anywhere between an hour and an hour fifteen minutes. It really was the best class activity I have ever organized.
I am literally just back from holding this lesson with my class. It was inspiring. I took notes during it and have uploaded them as a common document for them to look over as they write their reflections tonight. A deeply meaningful lesson, thank you.
So great to hear that! How did it go? I’d love to hear more.
Hi Pauline. I’ve own a children’s bookshop in Australia and run several book clubs. My oldest book club is reading Animal Farm this month. Looking over the web I came across your post on your social experiment. I’m nervously considering doing it during our 2 hour book club session. I have no idea how it’ll play out, or if I’ll be able to analyse the results. But I’m quietly excited. Thanks for the inspiration!
That’s great! Let me know how it goes!
Hi, Pauline! Did you run this social experiment towards the beginning of the novel or at the end after students had completed reading?
Hi! I usually ran it after Ch 2. It helped the students to see themselves in the novel.
Thank you so much Pauline – I ran the social experiment lesson with my Year 9 class of 13/14-year-olds and it was eye-opening in so many ways. I was nervous about how it would go but it was excellent for them and for me. I ran in after we’d read the play adaptation and before we have to compose original monologues for the existing characters.
Thank you for sharing your notes with me! I’m glad you tried it and it went well!
You might remember a true story that became an afterschool special or TV movie, called “The Wave,” in which a teacher about 35-40 years ago conducted a similar social experiment but with himself as the leader, showing his students how easily ordinary people can fall for Nazism. (Because the kids had reacted to a history lesson by asking how on earth that could have happened.) Anyway, Animal Farm and 1984 (which I read that year of course) were formative for me.
I love this idea. Could you give more insight into what you mean by #4 and #5? What are the expectations of functioning as a literature class?
I somehow missed answering this question. Sorry for the delay!
In my classroom, I made sure I taught literature, writing, grammar, and vocabulary. However, I wanted to know what it meant to my students to be running a literature class, which was another aspect to the experiment: Did the students follow what I established as a literature course, or did they come up with another plan? What they decided to do with the classroom instruction, if they even got to that point, was just as eye-opening as the other elements. What’s great about this social experiment is that it has nothing to do with me and everything to do with the students. You can’t teach the lesson; you have to let them show you what they want, know, and think.
Love all of this! Thank you for sharing. After the “rebellion” is over, how do you allow the students to reflect on the experiment? Do you assign a writing reflection or is it pure discussion? Thanks!
I usually have discussion on it. They end up writing an essay at the end of the novel, so I didn’t find the need to make them write more, but I have heard from other teachers who had students write a reflection piece after the experiment. They were insightful. It is your choice.
Great! Thank you so much.
Great post! I too would like to know if you gave any specific instructions on #4 and #5 to the students. Did they have an end goal or just try to conduct class as usual?
Thank you for your question! It showed me that I somehow missed the other similar question. I answered the first part of your question above. To add to it for your final question, my only goal was to observe how they behaved and then discuss it with them afterwards. The discussion of their behavior/choices helped them to identify their personalities and connect them to the characters in the novel. Their only goal was to react to the social experiment.
Thank you for sharing this! I used it today, and I was thrilled with results. I have freshman honors students, and they behaved similarly to what you describe in your experience with honors (elections, scrambling for power, etc.). It was amazing to see the different tactics they used to try to gain power to “act as one.” I had everything from appointing delegates to negotiate with the “rebels,” to one student stealing all of the white-board markers to stall the opposing side. It was amazing and we have so much to talk about as we continue reading Animal Farm!
For future years, I am interested in the writing packet you use for helping them write the analysis. Would you mind sharing that as well?
Thank you so much! This was the breath of fresh air that this unit needed!
This sounds like such a great way to teach this. Do you make the writing packet accessible to the public?
Thank you, Rachel. Not yet, but maybe someday.
Hi Pauline! Just starting this novel with my honors English I and would love to know if you created a lesson plan for this assignment or any other document that you might have used. Sounds very interesting and certainly a great way to make this novel relevant!
‘Marx’s ‘well meaning Communism’. Oh ffs. Only a fellow teacher could utter such an empty headed platitude in earnest. Spare the children though. Maybe share with them the little detail of 70 million bodies on top of Uncle Joe’s efforts. Turns out all animals are not equal after all.
We are going to a performance of Animal Farm this coming fall, and so decided to have all students (9-12) read this for summer reading. I am considering doing this experiment in smaller groups so as to be able to start the year with some reflection on our roles in the learning community. I would love your thoughts. It will likely only be a one-time session. Thanks!
Hi, I’m teaching Animal Farm for the first time (right now actually) and was looking for some inspiration when I stumbled on your site. The experiment is a very interesting idea that I will definitely have to do with my 9th grade class. Quick question, is the writing packet something you can share with me? The prompt you use is similar to an entry ticket I used, but I think the packet could help me dive deeper into analysis with my students. Thanks!